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During the Call of the Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, many Muslims were diligent in memorizing the (hadith) sayings of the Prophet peace be upon him.
As Islam spread through many countries, battles increased killing many memorizers of hadith. The remaining memorizers were dispersed throughout the countries. Growing concern arose that some of memorizers might keep the hadith to themselves; verification of hadith became little and falsehood and fabrication was being mistaken for the genuine truth. The need to write down and document the hadith became very apparent. The first person who ordered written documentation of hadith was ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abdul-‘Aziz; who did so after he was appointed to the office of Caliphate. He viewed written documentation as the best means of preserving genuine hadith of the Prophet Peace be upon him. In “Fathul-Bari” for Ibn Hajar it was mentioned that: “The first one to write down the hadith was Ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri at the turn of the first century by the order of ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz.”
Al-Bukhari also mentioned in “al-Fath”: ‘Umar Ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz wrote to all the countries.

i)Continuity of the chain (i.e. each narrator mustactually have had contact with the narrator ‘above’ him, from whom he is claiming to narrate).
ii)Moral uprightness of each narrator (an
inobservant or sinful Muslim, who is evidently careless even about his religious practice, cannot be expected to be careful enough to reliably transmit hadith).
iii)Retention of each narrator (someone with a poor memory cannot be relied upon to transmit hadith accurately, unless he writes down hadith upon hearing them and narrates only from his manuscript).
iv)Freedom from irregularities (if A, B, C, D, E and F all heard a hadith from X, but F narrates it differently than A, B, C, D and E, then even if F is upright and generally reliable, this particular narration of his will be considered irregular.)
v)Freedom from flaws (there are other, more subtle flaws in the isnad, which can be detected by experts in hadith science, who have familiarity with information about the narrators, and with a large corpus of narrations and the correlations and divergences between them.)

i)The parties must have the capacity to marry
ii)There must be a clear proposal and acceptance.
iii)Free consent
iv)No Legal disability

i)Capacity to marry: Every Muslim of sound mind who has attained puberty, may enter into a contract of marriage. So the boy and girl who has attained puberty can validly contract a marriage .
ii)Proposal and Acceptance: Under the Muslim law for the validity of a marriage there must be a proposal and acceptance at the same meeting. Neither writing nor any religious ceremony is essential.
iii)Free consent: Free consent of the parties is absolutely necessary for a valid marriage. The marriage of a girl who has attained puberty and is of sound mind would be void if her consent is not obtained.
iv)No Legal disability: Under Muslim Law, marriage under certain circumstances is prohibited or not permitted. The prohibitions can be classified into two classes:
-Absolute Prohibition
-Relative prohibition

Tafsir of Quran means the explanation or interpretations of the verses of Quran.

i)Tafsir bil Riwaya
ii)Tafsir bil Ray

i)Firstly, it tries to explain Quran so that the understanding of the reader about Quran and its message increases.
Reading only the translation can give the literal meanings of the words of Quran, however, Tafsir comes with context in which a particular Ayah was revealed, hence giving a context to each and every word, which consequently means a better understanding of Quran and its verses.
ii)Secondly , Tafsir is also important when it comes to driving out the laws of Islam from Quran. Verses of Quran come with instructions, and then there are the hadiths of Prophet (PBUH) that also gives instructions. Thus, Tafsir combines both and gives a complete and
comprehendible set of instructions to the reader.
iii)Thirdly, when there is no science involved in the interpretation of Quran, then ambiguity and contradiction is surely to rise.

Fasting teaches man the principle of sincere love; because when he observes the fasting he doses it out of deep love for Allah. And the man who loves Allah truly is a man who really knows what love is.

It equips man with a creative sense of hope and an optimistic outlook on life; because when he fast he is hoping to please Allah and is seeking His Grace.

It imbues man with a genuine virtue of
effective Devotion, honest and Dedication and closeness to Allah because when he fast he does so for Allah alone

It cultivates in man a vigilant and sound
conscience; because the fasting person keeps his fast in secret as well as in public.

It shows man a new way of wise savings
and sound Budgeting; because normally when he eats less quantities or less meals he spends less money and effort. And this is a spiritual semester of home economics and budgeting.

It enables man to master the art of mature
G. Adaptability. We can easily understand the point once we realize that fasting makes man change the entire course of his daily life.


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